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Thursday, April 5, 2018

Laxatives for fast action with constipation for adults and children

Laxatives for fast action with constipation :

laxatives

Laxatives for fast action: Constipation is a rather controversial condition of the body, despite the fact that 30 to 50 percent of the adult population and 5 to 20 percent of children face this problem. The World Health Organization considers a delayed, difficult or insufficient defecation of the disease , as evidenced by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Problems.

At the same time, international gastroenterological organizations and associations of gastroenterologists denote constipation as a symptom of various diseases. This position is also typical for domestic medicine. Classification of problems with defecation as a symptom determines the nature of their elimination: in gastroenterology, the main step in the fight against constipation is to eliminate the causes of their occurrence. But along with this, in most cases fast and effective therapy is required, aimed at normalizing the stool, which is performed with the help of medicines belonging to a large group - laxatives.

Characteristics of laxatives


Characteristics of laxatives
Characteristics of laxatives
Laxatives are medicines that are used solely to fight constipation. Generalized mechanism of their action can be divided into two areas:
  • strengthening wave-like contraction of the large intestine (peristalsis) to accelerate the withdrawal of its contents to the outlet;
  • inhibition of reverse water absorption in the large intestine.
The history of laxative preparations began with plant remedies, which included antraglycosides. Over time, salt and synthetic drugs were created, which were not always effective and safe to use. But now pharmacology has gone far ahead, enemas, syrups and tablets from constipation have become more perfect and we will consider them as much as possible in detail.

Classification of laxatives


Classification of laxatives
Classification of laxatives
According to the international system of classification of medicinal products, laxatives are divided into six groups:
  • softening agents;
  • osmotic laxatives;
  • laxatives that increase the amount of intestinal contents;
  • laxatives in the form of enemas and candles;
  • contact (irritable) laxatives;
  • other laxatives.
Let's consider each of the groups in more detail.

Laxatives of softening action (plasticizers)


The main drugs of the group
  • Liquid paraffin (Vaseline oil) (from 45 rubles.)
  • Norgalax (sodium docusate) (from 80 rubles)
  • Glycerin (from 136 rubles.)
  • Almond oil (from 63 rubles.)
Mechanism of action

Softening laxatives affect the level of the small intestine. The result of their work is softening of stool, stimulation of peristalsis, reduction of absorption of liquid by the walls of the intestine, simplification of slipping of stool to the outlet.

Indications for use

Assigned to people who can not push (women after childbirth, people after surgery), patients with coprostasis (obstruction of the large intestine). Also, the drugs of this group are recommended for various poisonings and in preparation for diagnostic procedures.

Contraindications

Do not apply softening laxatives to pregnant women, children under 12 years, people with chronic constipation, hemorrhoids, kidney diseases, uterine and intestinal hemorrhages.

Side effects

Possible reduction of reflexes of defecation, inflammation of the rectal mucosa, malignant neoplasms of the intestine

Osmotic laxatives

The main drugs of the group

There are three subgroups of osmotic laxatives:


  • salt preparations: Sodium sulfate (from 19 rubles.), Magnesium sulphate (from 23 rubles.), Karlovy Vary salt, Magnesium hydroxide
  • indigestible carbohydrates - prebiotics: Lactulose (from 202 rubles), Inulin (from 82 rubles.), Dufalac (from 248 rubles.), Prelax (from 161 rubles.), Normaz (from 257 rubles.)
  • Macrogol and its analogs: Forlax (from 152 rubles.), Endofalk (from 462 rubles.), Fortrans (from 118 rubles.).
Mechanism of action

Saline laxatives act throughout the intestines, increasing the osmotic pressure in its lumen. This action attracts into the intestine fluid from the plasma and fatty tissues, which leads to softening of stool.
Prebiotics have an effect on the large intestine. With their bacterial fermentation in the colon, acidity in this region increases, which leads to an increase in volume and a softening of the stool.
Macrogol stimulates the hydration process, equalizing the volume of the large intestine and its contents. Does not affect the intestinal microflora and does not irritate it.

Indications for use

Osmotic laxatives are prescribed for various types of poisoning, in preparation for laboratory tests and surgical intervention, with acute and chronic constipation.

Contraindications

The salt subgroup of laxatives is contraindicated in children, pregnant women and women during lactation. Also, salt laxatives can not be used for heart failure. Prebiotics and Macrogol have virtually no contraindications. They are most often prescribed for constipation in children.

Side effects


Salt preparations can cause uncontrolled laxative effect, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
The intake of prebiotics is often accompanied by flatulence, and Macrogol can cause diarrhea and minor abdominal pain.

Bulk laxatives


The main drugs of the group
  • Sea kale (from 63 rubles.);
  • Flax seeds (from 50 rub.);
  • Figs (from 122 rubles.);
  • Pulp of psyllium seeds (from 90 rub.);
  • Mukofalk (from 504 rubles.).

Mechanism of action

At the heart of this group are laxative components that are not digested in the intestine. In fact, they expand the volume of the rectum, while retaining water, which leads to reflex acceleration of defecation. Admission of the drugs themselves should be accompanied by the simultaneous use of a large amount of liquid - up to one and a half liters.

Indications for use

Are prescribed for chronic constipation, people who can not push (postpartum and postoperative periods), patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

Contraindications

Presence of allergies to components of preparations.

Side effects


The intake of bulk laxatives may be accompanied by bloating, minor pain, a feeling of colon fullness.

  • They are considered the safest group of laxatives.
  • Laxatives in the form of enemas and suppositories
  • The main drugs of the group
  • Norgalax (from 80 rubles.);
  • Bisakodil in candles (from 25 rubles.);
  • Glycerol (from 90 rubles.);
  • Mikrolaks (from 346 rubles.).

Mechanism of action

They have a local effect on the rectum, softening the stool and increasing them in volume.
Indications for use Assigned before laboratory tests, postpartum and postoperative periods, as well as with episodic constipation.

Contraindications: Remedies for constipation in the form of enemas and candles are contraindicated in uterine bleeding, with exacerbation of hemorrhoids, inflammatory processes in the colon and with cracks in the anus.

Side effects: In the short term, laxatives of this group do not have side effects. Long-term use may be accompanied by pain and itching in the anus, inflammation of the rectum, diarrhea.
  • Contact (irritable) laxatives
  • The main drugs of the group
  • Castor oil (from 53 rubles.);
  • Root of rhubarb (from 160 rubles.);
  • Bisacodyl (from 45 rubles.);
  • Fruits of the hopper;
  • Guttalaks (from 230 rubles.);
  • Phytolax in the form of chewing tablets (from 195 rubles.).
Mechanism of action: Preparations of this group have an irritant effect on the mucous membrane and nerve endings in the large intestine, thus stimulating the process of peristalsis. Also contact laxatives prevent the process of absorption of liquid from the intestine, not allowing the calves to harden.

Indications for use: Are appointed, mainly, at acute constipation.
Contraindications: Not prescribed for children and the elderly, as well as patients with limited mobility due to the unpredictable course of laxative effect. In addition, most drugs in this group have individual contraindications, and their long-term use is not recommended.

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